용어 설명 (압력, 열 관련)

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
 
 A transducer that has an internal reference chamber sealed at or close to 0 psia (full vacuum)
   and normally provides increasing output voltage for increases in pressure.

ACCURACY
   The combined error of nonlinearity, repeatability, and hysteresis expressed as a percent of full scale output.

AXIAL LOAD
   
A load applied along or parallel to and concentric with the primary axis.

BRIDGE
   
A Wheatstone bridge configuration utilizing four active strain gages.

BRIDGE RESISTANCE
   
The nominal value of the individual legs that make up a complete Wheatstone bridge.

CALIBRATION
   
The comparison of transducer voltage outputs against the outputs of a reference standard.

DAMPING
   
The reduction of response at the resonant frequency through the use of a damping media such as oil.
   Usually specified as the ratio of critical damping.

DEAD VOLUME
   
The volume inside the pressure port of a transducer at room temperature and barometric pressure.

DEFLECTION
   
The change in length along the primary axis or distance a diaphragm moves at the center between no-load
   and rated load conditions.

DIAPHRAGM
   
The sensing membrane which is deformed when pressure is applied.

EXCITATION, ELECTRICAL
   
The voltage or current applied to the input terminals of the transducer.

FLUSH DIAPHRAGM
   
Sensing element is located on the very tip of the transducer (No pressure port).

FREQUENCY RESPONSE
   
The range of frequencies over which the transducer voltage output will follow the sinusoidally varying
   mechanical input within specified limits.

FULL SCALE
   
See Rated Capacity.

FULL SCALE OUTPUT
   
The algebraic difference between the minimum output (normally zero) and the rated capacity.

GAGE PRESSURE
   
The pressure above (or below) atmospheric.
   Represents positive difference between measured pressure  and existing atmospheric pressure.
   Can be converted to absolute by adding actual atmospheric pressure value.

GAGE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
   
A transducer which measures pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure.

HYSTERESIS
   
the maximum difference between output readings for the same measurand point,
   one point obtained while increasing from zero and the other while decreasing from full scale.
   The points are taken on the same continuous cycle.
   The deviation is expressed as a percent of full scale.

INPUT IMPEDANCE
   
The resistance measured across the excitation terminals of a transducer at room temperature,
   with no load applied, and with the output terminals open-circuited.

INSULATION (Isolation) RESISTANCE
   
The DC resistance expressed in ohms measured between any electrical connector pin or lead wire
   and the transducer body or case.
   Normally measured at 50 VDC.

LINEARITY
   
The maximum deviation of the calibration curve from a straight line between zero and full scale,
   expressed as a percent of full scale output and measured on increasing measurand only.

LINE PRESSURE
   
The maximum pressure in the pressure vessel or pipe for differential pressure measurement.

LOAD
   
The weight, torque, or force applied to the transducer.

LOAD BUTTONS
   
The spherical shape of the top surface of a load cell where the load is applied.

MEASURAND MEDIA
   
The physical quantity, property, or condition which is measured. (eg: pressure, load, weight, acceleration).

MOUNTED RESONANT FREQUENCY
   
the frequency at which the internal spring/mass system of an accelerometer resonates,
   producing a 90° phase shift in output signal vs. applied acceleration.

OUTPUT
   
The electrical signal measured at the output terminals which is produced by an applied input to a transducer.

OUTPUT IMPEDANCE
   
The resistance as measured on the output terminals of a transducer at standard temperature,
   with no measurand applied, and with the excitation terminals open-circuited.

OVERRANGE, SAFE
   
the maximum pressure or load which may be applied to the transducer without causing a permanent change
   in the performance specifications.

PHASE SHIFT
   
The phase angle between the output signal and the applied acceleration.

PRIMARY AXIS
   
The axis along which the transducer is designed to be loaded; normally its geometric centerline.

PSI
   
Pounds per square inch.

PSIA
   
Pounds per square inch absolute.

PSID
   
Pounds per square inch differential.

PSIG
   
Pounds per square inch gage.

PULL PLATE
   
Load cell attachment which allows tension or compression force to be directed at the center line of a load cell
   through a threaded center hole.

RANGE
   
the measurand values, over which a transducer is intended to measure specified by their upper and lower limits.

RATED CAPACITY
   
The maximum measurand that a transducer is designed to measure within its specification.

REPEATABILITY
   
The ability of a transducer to reproduce output readings when the same measurand value is applied to it consecutively,
   under the same conditions and in the same direction.
   Repeatability is expressed as the maximum difference between output readings as a percent of full scale.

RESOLUTION
   
The smallest change in mechanical input which produces a detectable change in the output signal.

SENSING ELEMENT
   
The part of the transducer which reacts directly in response to the measurand.

SENSITIVITY
   
The ratio of change in transducer output to a change in the value of the measurand.

SHUNT CAL (R-CAL)
   
The change in electrical output caused by placing a fixed resistor between the appropriate transducer terminals.
   Used “in the field” for quick calibration.

SPAN
   
The algebraic difference between the limits of the range from zero to full scale.

SPECIFICATIONS
   
The group of error limits within which each device will operate.

STRAIN GAGE
   
A measuring element for converting force, pressure, tension, etc., into an electrical signal.

TEMPERATURE, COMPENSATED
   
The range of temperature over which a transducer can operate up to full scale and still meet all specifications.

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION
   
The utilization of supplementary devices, materials, or components within the bridge to minimize sources of error
   caused by changing temperature.

TEMPERATURE, OPERATING
   
The range of temperature over which a transducer may be safely operated up to full scale without causing failure,
   but specifications may not be met.

TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON SPAN
   
The change in rated output due to a exchange in ambient temperature.
   Usually expressed as +/- a percentage change in rated output per degree F change in ambient temperature,
   over the compensated temperature range.

TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON ZERO
   
The change in zero balance due to a change in ambient temperature.
   Usually expressed as +/- a percentage change in rated output per degree F change in ambient temperature
   over the compensated temperature range.

TRANSDUCER
   
A device (or medium) that converts energy from one form to another.
   The term is generally applied to devices that take physical phenomenon (pressure, temperature, humidity, flow, etc.)
   and convert it to an electrical signal.

TRANSMITTER
   
A transducer that has a 4-20 mA two-wire output.

TRANSVERSE SENSITIVITY
   
Signal output as a result of acceleration perpendicular to the sensitive axis.
   Specified as a percentage of sensitive axis output for equivalent right angle acceleration or as a decimal fraction.

TRUE GAGE
   
A true gage transducer differs from a standard gage because it has a second diaphragm.
   The additional diaphragm seals the strain gages and element in a hermetic chamber,
   keeping moisture and potentially corrosive gasses out.
   Wet or dry atmospheric pressure is vented to the back side of the second diaphragm to reference barometric changes
   on the sensing element.
   Higher range units (750 psi and above) are sealed at atmospheric pressure.

VIBRATION ERROR
   
the maximum change in output of a transducer when a specific amplitude and range of frequencies
   are applied to a specific axis at room temperature.

WET/DRY DIFFERENTIAL
   
A differential pressure transducer or transmitter that uses a metal diaphragm at the wet port where fluids can be applied,
   and no diaphragm at the dry port.
   The dry port exposes the internal circuitry to the medium, so only clean dry gas can be applied to this port.

WET/WET DIFFERENTIAL
   
A differential pressure transducer or transmitter that has a metal diaphragm in each pressure port to permit fluid into both ports.

WETTED PARTS
   
the diaphragm and pressure port material that comes in direct contact with the medium (gas, liquid).

ZERO ADJUSTMENTS
   
Used when “setting up” a transducer to adjust the output signal to zero when zero load/pressure is applied.

ZERO BALANCE
   
The output signal of the transducer with rated excitation and with no-load applied, usually expressed as a percent of rated output.

ZERO RETURN
   
The difference in zero balance measured immediately before rated load application of specified duration and
   measured after removal of the load, and when the output has stabilized.